Using information technology chapter 1

Text book : Using Information technology  7th edition
Chapter review
Stage 1            :
Self test Questions
  1. The World Wide Web refers to the part of the internet  that presents information in multimedia form.
  2. The two main types of microcomputers are the Desktop PCs ,which sits on the desktop, and the Tower PCs, which usually is placed on floor.
  3. Information technology “merges computing with high speed communications.
  4. A(n) Computer is an electronic machine that accepts data and processes it into information.
  5. The Internet is a worldwide network that connects hundreds of thousands of smaller network.
  6. Multimedia refers to information presented in nontextual forms such as video, sound , and graphics.
  7. Supercomputers are high-capacity machines with thousands of processors.
  8. Embedded computers , or microcontrollers , are installed in “smart” appliances and automobiles.
  9. The kind if software that enables users to perform specific tasks is called Application software.
10.  RAM is an example of            primary storage, and a hard drive is an example of secondary storage .
11.  A(n) network is a communications system connecting two or more computers.
12.  The four basic operations of all computers are Input , Processing , Storage, and Output.
13.  The first programmable computers in the USA, which appeared in 1946, was called the ENIAC(Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator).
14.  The Monitor is the display device that takes the electrical signals from the video card and forms an image using points of colored light on the screen.
15.  The base material for computer processing devices is silicon ,a natural element found in sand.
16.  The general term for all the machinery and equipment in a computer system is hardware.
17.  Keyboard and Mouse are the two most common input devices.
18.  The processor chip, commonly called the processor or a CPU ,is a tiny pieces of silicon that contains millions of miniature electronic circuits.
19.  One gigabyte is approximately 1 billion characters.
Multiple choice questions
  1. Which of the following devices converts computer output into displayed images?
    1. Printer
    2. b. Monitor
    3. Floppy-Disk drive
    4. Processor
    5. Hard-Disk drive
  2. Which of the following computer types is the smallest?
    1. Mainframe
    2. Microcomputer
    3. c. Microcontroller
    4. Supercomputer
    5. Workstation
  3. Which of the following is the secondary-storage devices?
    1. Processor
    2. Memory chip
    3. c. Floppy-Disk drive
    4. Printer
    5. Monitor
  4. Since the days when computers were first made available , computers have developed in three directions. What are they?
    1. Increased expense
    2. b. Miniaturization
    3. Increased size
    4. d. Affordability
    5. e. Increase speed
  5. Which of the following operations constitute the four basic operations followed by all computers?
    1. Input
    2. Storage
    3. Programming
    4. Output
    5. e. Processing
  6. Supercomputers are used for
    1. Breaking codes
    2. Simulations for explosions f nuclear bombs
    3. Forecasting weather
    4. Keeping planets in orbit
    5. All of these
    6. f. Only a , b , and c
  7. What is the leading use of computers?
    1. Web surfing
    2. b. Email
    3. e-shopping
    4. word processing
  8. Which is the main circuit board in the computer?
    1. RAM chip(random access memory)
    2. CPU processor chip(central processing unit)
    3. c. Motherboard(system board)
    4. Hard drive
  9. A terabyte is approximately
    1. One million characters
    2. One billion characters
    3. c. One trillion characters
    4. One quadrillion characters
10.  Speakers are an example of
  1. An input device
  2. b. An output device
  3. A processor
  4. A storage device
True / False Questions
  1. Mainframe computers process faster than microcomputers.(T)
  2. Main memory is a software component.(F)
  3. The operating system is part of the system software.
  4. Processing is the manipulation by which a computer transforms data into information.(T)
  5. Primary storage is the area in the computer where data or information is held permanently.(F)
  6. The keyboard and the mouse are examples of input devices.(T)
  7. Movies are a form of multimedia.(T)
  8. Computers are becoming larger , slower , and more expensive.(F)
  9. Modems store information.(F)
10.  A microcomputers is used to view very small objects.(F)
11.  A hard disc is an example of software.(F)
12.  Computers continue to get smaller and smaller.(T)
13.  Supercomputers are particularly inexpensive.(F)

Stage 2 :
Short answer Questions
  1. What does online mean?
online means using a computer or some other information device, connected through a network, to access information and services from another computer or information devices.
  1. What is the difference between the system software and application software?
System software is software that helps the computer to perform essential operational task, application software is a software developed to solve a particular problem , perform useful work on general-purpose tasks, or provide entertainment.
  1. Briefly define cyberspace.
Cyberspace is a term used to refer to not only the online world and internet in particular but also the whole wired and wireless world of communications in general.
  1. What is the difference between software and hardware?
Hardware is all machinery and equipment in a computer system. Software is a program that instruct hardware to perform a task.
  1. What is local area network?
A local area network(LAN) connects, usually by special cable, a group of desktop PCs and other devices , such as printers, in a office or a building.
  1. What is multimedia?
Technology that presents information more than one medium, such as text , still images , moving images , and sound.
  1. What is the difference between microcomputers and supercomputers?
The size , processing speed , price of supercomputers are totally different with microcomputer. Supercomputers usually used in research purpose , microcomputer is a personal computer with various purpose.
  1. What is the function of RAM?
RAM – temporary storage that hold data before processing and information after processing.
  1. What does downloading mean?
Downloading means transferring data from a remote computer to one’s own computer.
10.  What is meant by connectivity?
Ability to connect to computers to one another by communications lines to provide online information access and sharing the peripheral devices.
11.  Describe some ways that information technology can be used to help people find jobs and help jobs find people.
Post resume online , online job search.
12.  Compare the use of email to the use of the telephone and of conventional letters sent via the postal system. Which kind of communications are best suited for which medium?

13.  What is the basic meaning if cloud computing?
Concepts of storing your software or data not on your own PC but on the servers on internet.
Stage 3 :
Applying , Analyzing , Synthesizing , Evaluating
Knowledge in action
  1. Computer prices are constantly falling .Whatever you pay for a computer today , you can be certain that you will be able to buy a more powerful computer for less money a year from now. So how can you decide when it’s good time to upgrade to a better computer ?Paradoxically , it seems that no matter how you time it, you’ll always lose , because prices will go down again soon, and yet you  will also always gain , because , since you were going to upgrade sooner or later anyway, you will reap the benefits of having the more powerful equipment that much longer.
Discuss the benefits and costs , both material and psychological , of “waiting until prices drop.”Gather more information on this topic by asking friends and colleagues what choices they have made about upgrading equipment over the years and whether they feel satisfaction or regret about the timing when they finally did upgrade.
I think the material benefit for waiting until the prices drop is you can save your money, because the computer prices will surely falling ,but you will has the psychological cost , that is your computer is not up to date. But no one can guarantee that the new technology developed will always better than the old one, so if you wait until the prices drop , you will know more about the advantages and disadvantages of that  technology.
9.   It has been said that the computer is a “meta medium” because it can simulate (behave as) any other medium. Thus a computer can present text that can be read from virtual “pages” as if it were a book; it can let you compose and print text as if it were a typewriter; it can play music as if it were a boombox; it can make telephone calls as if it were a telephone; it can let you “draw” and “paint”; it can be programmed to serve as an answering machine; and so forth.
Imagine a future in which computer have replaced all the things they can emulate: instead of books and magazines and newspapers, we would have text only on computers. Telephones , PDAs ,  television sets, VCR’s ,DVD players, stereo sets, and other  electronic devices would all be gone or , rather, subsumed by computers. What benefits to your life can you see in such a future? What things might be worse ? What dangers can you see? Do you think this kind of radical convergence is likely ?if so, how long do you think it will take.
The benefits is our life become easier , and convenient. But the worse things is we will depend to much on computers. If there aren’t any computers, we can’t do anything.  But to reach this kind of state , it will still have a long way to go. First , we need a large amount if computer units.

Web exercises
6.  “Moore’s Law” predicts the rate at which computers will continue to get smaller ( and hence faster ). The “law” has proved to be astonishingly accurate over many years. Do a web search for Moore’s law and see if you can find answers to the following questions :
  1. Who is Moore , and when did he make the prediction we know as Moore’s law?
Moore is Intel co-founder ,he make the prediction at 1965
  1. What is the simplest statement of the law’s prediction?
number of components in integrated circuits will doubled at least every 2 years
  1. How has the law changed overtime?
now, it need least than two years for the components in integrated ciccuits to be doubled.
  1. How much longer is the law expected to hold true?
it is supposed to be true until 2015 or later.
  1. How does the law affects the business projection?
Moore’s law drived the business in the  development of computers, where it becomes the  targets for research and development.

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