Modal Verbs Necessity Or Obligation

Modal Chart

Necessity or Obligation
Sample sentences from the article:
Each of us has to finish two thick books….
…he was expected to complete…
Have to / Has to / Had to
Be expected to

These words express necessity or obligation. They usually indicate that someone else has imposed conditions on us. For example:
I have to take out the garbage. (It’s something I must do now. My mother told me to do it.)
I am expected to take out the garbage. (It’s a regular responsibility, a daily chore that my parents have given me.)

A related expression is be supposed to.
I am supposed to clean my room. (I’m required to do it.)

In the negative, these expressions have different meanings. For example:
I don’t have to go to the dance this weekend. (There is no obligation. I can choose to go or not.)
I’m not expected to go to the dance this weekend. (There is no expectation. People will be surprised if I do go.)
I’m not supposed to go to the dance this weekend. (I’m prohibited from going. It would probably be rude for me to go.)

Modals Chart
Past Modal
Negative Past
Could not
Could have
Could not
Couldn't have
Could not have
Will not
Would not
Would have
Would not
Wouldn't have
Would not have
May have
May not
May not have
Might have
Might not
Might not have
Should have
Should not
Should not have
Had to
Must have
Must not
Must not have
Ought to
Ought to have
Ought not to
Ought not to have
Have to
Has to
Had to
Don't have to
Doesn't have to
Didn't have to
Did not have to
Have got to
Has got to

Be going to
Be supposed to
Is/are/am/not going to
Isn't/aren't/am not supposed to
Wasn't/weren't going to
Wasn't/weren't supposed to
Be able to
Was/were able to
Isn't/aren't able to
Wasn't/weren't able to
Be to
Was/were to
Is/are/am/not to
Wasn't/weren't to
Need to
Needs to
Needed to
Doesn't need to
Didn't need to
Had better

Had better not

Used to

Didn't use to

Be about to
Was/were about to
Is/are/am not about to
Wasn't/weren't about to
Would rather
Would rather have
Would rather not
Would rather not have

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